Knee dislocations can occur for a myriad of reasons; motor vehicle accidents or severe torsion injuries while playing sports. Due to the extreme severity of injury, immediate medical attention and proper treatment with aggressive rehabilitation is required to preserve neurovascular integrity and joint function.
Mechanism of Injury
Dislocation of the knee occurs when the tibia and fibula or patella(knee cap) moves out of position in relation to the femur. These bones are held together by stabilizing ligaments. These ligaments are responsible for supporting the knee in a specific position. Dislocations occur when there is a tear in the ligaments. If there is only a partial dislocation, it’s called a subluxation.
Patellar dislocations are caused by traumatic injury, underdeveloped leg musculature or alignment issues. Patella dislocations can cause bone, ligament and cartilage injuries. Knee dislocations can occur for various reasons such as engaging in high-risk activities such as skiing, as well as playing certain types of sports where there is the possibility of a torsion injury. Knee dislocations can result in injury to the nerves and vessels to the lower leg, as well as ligament and cartilage injuries.
There are many types of exercises to strengthen the musculature around the patella to prevent injury from recurring. These fundamental exercises will strengthen the hamstrings, quadriceps and inner and outer thigh muscles.
1) Doing Squats
How does it help: Knee dislocation treatment like this involves exercises that strengthen the muscles and ligaments that support the knee. Squats are an optimal strengthening exercise since they work all muscles of the thigh.
How to do it: Squats involves lowering down in a squatting position until your knees and thighs create a 90-degree angle. Form is very important while performing squats as you don’t want to place too much stress on the knee joint. Weight should be centred as you push up from your heels. A good starting point would be to perform two to three sets of 15 repetitions.
How does it help: Strengthening of the inner and outer thigh musculature is imperative to prevent recurrence of knee subluxation.
How to do it: Begin by lying on your back with an exercise ball in between your thighs. Gently squeeze your inner thighs together and hold for the count of five. To work outer thighs, again lie on your back and place a resistance band around the outside of your legs. With legs together, gently push against the resistance bands and then bring your legs back together. Begin with three sets of 10 of each exercise with a 30-second between each set.